C++ is a widely-used and popular programming language that has been around for over 30 years, and it is still widely used today. It was created by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs in 1983 as an extension of the prevalent C programming language. C++ is known for its efficiency, speed, and ability to handle complex programming tasks.
One of the unique features of C++ is that it allows for both high-level and low-level programming. This means that you can write code that is easy to read and understand while also having the ability to access low-level hardware components. This makes C++ a great language for both freshers and experienced programmers and developers.
To know and explore more about this programming language, refer to the below article on a complete guide to programming in C++.
Introduction to C++ Programming Language
C++ is one of the general-purpose programming languages that was originally developed as an extension to the C language to integrate the object-oriented paradigm. It is a compiled language that is imperative.
C++ is a high-level, all-purpose programming language developed for programming systems and applications. It is an object-oriented, multi-paradigm language that may be programmed in procedural, functional, or generic ways.
Being able to enable low-level, system-level programming is one of C++’s principal features, making it ideal for building operating systems, device drivers, and other system applications. C++ is a popular choice for creating desktop apps, video games, and other complicated applications because it offers a comprehensive collection of libraries and features for high-level application programming.
Also, read: C++ Interview Questions and Answers
a) Why Learn C++?
Learning C++ can be a challenging task, but it is a rewarding experience. Once you have mastered the language, you will have the ability to create powerful and efficient programs that can run on any platform. Students and working professionals who want to excel as software engineers should learn C++. We, at EZInterviews, outline a few of the main benefits of knowing C++:
- Because C++ is so close to the hardware, it allows you to operate at a low level, giving you a great deal of control over memory management, improved performance, and, ultimately, robust software development.
- You can clearly understand object-oriented programming by using the C++ programming language. When you build virtual tables, virtual table pointers, or dynamic type identification, you will understand how low-level polymorphism is implemented.
- Millions of software developers enjoy C++, making it one of the most sustainable programming languages. If you are an excellent C++ programmer, you will never be unoccupied, and, more importantly, you will be well compensated for your efforts.
- In system and application programming, C++ is the most used programming language. Therefore, you can select your preferred area of software development.
- The differences between a compiler, linker, and loader, as well as various data types, storage classes, variable types, and their scopes, are all things you learn about in C++.
- The most crucial aspect of learning C++ is to concentrate on principles. Learning a programming language will help you become a better programmer, which will make it easier for you to develop new systems and maintain existing ones.
- Many programming languages are supported by C++. In any language, you can write in the style of Fortran, C, Smalltalk, and so on. Each style can effectively fulfill its objectives while retaining runtime and space efficiency.
There are countless benefits to learning C++ programming. One thing is for certain, though: in order to learn any programming language, not just C++, you just need to practice coding until you are an expert.
b) Hello World Using C++
Here is a simple conventional C++ Hello World program to pique your interest in C++ programming:
using namespace std;
// Main() function: where the execution of program begins
// prints hello world
cout << “Hello World”;
c) Applications of C++ Programming
C++ is one of the most popular programming languages, as mentioned before. Almost every aspect of software development includes it. Here is a short list of a few of the prominent applications of this programming language:
- Application Software Development: Almost all of the main operating systems, including Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux, were developed using the C++ programming language. In addition to operating systems, C++ has been used to write the core part of numerous browsers, including Mozilla Firefox and Chrome. The most widely used database system, MySQL, was likewise created using C++.
- Computation Programming: The quick speed and computational efficiency of C++ make it the best friend of scientists.
- Games Development: Because C++ is so quick and easy, it enables programmers to do procedural programming for CPU-intensive functions and gives them more hardware control. As a result, it has been commonly used in the development of gaming engines.
- Embedded System: Medical and engineering applications like software for MRI machines, advanced CAD/CAM systems, etc., are frequently developed using C++.
There are numerous fields where software engineers are using C++ to develop exceptional software, and the list keeps going. You should learn C++ so that you can develop outstanding applications to contribute right back to the community.
d) Standard Libraries
Standard C++ has the following three important parts:
- The core language contains all of the building components, such as variables, data types, and literals.
- A wide variety of functions for manipulating files, strings, etc., are available in the C++ Standard Library.
- The Standard Template Library (STL) offers a wide range of techniques for working with data structures, among other things.
e) The ANSI Standard
The ANSI standard aims to make C++ portable such that code written for Microsoft’s compiler will work flawlessly on a Mac, UNIX, Windows box, or an Alpha.
All of the major C++ compiler manufacturers support the ANSI standard, which has been stable for some time.
Top 15 C++ Interview Questions and Answers
1. What is C++?
2. What are the advantages of C++?
3. What is the difference between C and C++?
4. What are the various OOPs concepts in C++?
5. What is Overloading in C++?
6. What are pointers in C++?
7. What are the different data types present in C++?
8. What is a constructor in C++?
9. What are Call-by-value and Call-by-reference in C++?
10. What is Namespace in C++?
11. What is a Class template?
12. What is a Friend Function in C++?
13. What is an Abstract class in C++?
14. How to convert int to string in C++?
15. What is Polymorphism in C++?
Basics of C++ Programming
Let’s start with the fundamentals and build up a theoretical foundation for writing programs and understanding the features of the C++ language. We would begin by learning the basics of this language in this article before moving on to learning about input/output, operators, variables, loops, etc.
Before going through the basics of C++, we should make two more concepts clear: low-level and high-level.
To make things simpler to understand, let’s look at the following example: When we use the Google search engine and enter some keywords, Google displays a list of websites that match our search. For us, Google performs this task at a very high level. Until we examine Google servers (at a low level) and go even further to the level where the data is in 0s/1s, we cannot understand what is happening at the low level. A low level refers to something that is closest to the hardware, and a high level refers to something that is farther away from the hardware and has many layers of abstraction.
The fact that C++ is closer to hardware than the majority of general-purpose programming languages makes it a low-level language. Yet, one must first understand the fundamentals of any programming language in order to become proficient in it.
a) Basic Input and Output in C++
The libraries that come with C++ give us a variety of options for performing input and output. Input and output in C++ are carried out in the form of streams, which are just a sequence of bytes. For taking inputs and printing out outputs, respectively, the two methods, cin and cout, are frequently used. Input and output in C++ can be handled using these two fundamental techniques.
b) Data Types and Modifiers in C++
To limit the type of data that can be stored, all variables utilize the data type during declaration. So, we can conclude that data types are used to inform variables about the kind of data they can store.
The compiler allocates some memory for a variable whenever it is defined in C++, based on the data type which the help of which it is declared. Different amounts of memory are needed for various data types. With the use of data type modifiers, we can change this.
c) Variables in C++
A variable is a name assigned to a memory location. It is the fundamental storage unit in the program. The value of a variable can be modified during the execution of a program. All actions performed on a variable have an impact on the memory location for which it is designated; a variable is nothing more than a name. All variables in C++ must be declared before use.
d) Operators in C++
The foundation of any programming language is its operators. In other words, without the use of operators, the functionality of the C/C++ programming language is lacking. We can define operators as symbols that allow us to conduct specific mathematical and logical computations on operands. In other terms, an operator can be said to operate the operands.
e) Loops in C++
When we need to repeatedly perform a block of statements, we use loops in programming. Say, for instance, that we want to print “Hello World” ten times. The iterative method and the use of loops are two methods to accomplish this.
Functions in C++
A function is a group of statements that take inputs, carry out specified calculations, and produce outputs. The concept is to combine several frequently performed tasks into one function so that we can call the function instead of writing the same code repeatedly for various inputs.
Arrays in C++
An array in C++, like in other computer languages, is a collection of similar types of elements with adjacent memory locations.
Std::array is a container in C++ that contains fixed-size arrays. The array index in C++ starts from 0. In a C++ array, only a fixed group of elements can be stored.
In the C/C++ programming languages or any other programming language for that matter, an array is a collection of identical data elements stored in adjacent memory locations. An array’s indices can be used to access any element at any time. Any collection of primitive data types, such as int, float, double, char, etc., can be stored in them. An array in C/C++ can also store derived data types like structures, pointers, and other data types, which is an addition. Additionally, derived data types like structures, pointers, and other data types can be stored in an array in C/C++.
Strings in C++
The definition of a string is an array of characters. These are utilized when working with numerous characters as well as various unique characters. Contrary to C, C++ gives users access to a comprehensive library that makes it simpler and more efficient to perform operations on strings.
Pointers in C++
Pointers are symbols used to represent addresses. They enable programs the ability to build and manipulate dynamic data structures in addition to simulating call-by-reference. Because a pointer knows how many bytes the data is stored in, we associate a data type with it. A pointer is increased by the size of the data type it points to when it is incremented.
Classes and Objects in C++
A Class in C++ is the building block of Object-Oriented programming. It is a user-defined data type that has its own data members and member functions that can be viewed and used by making an instance of that class. A class is similar to a blueprint for an object.
An object, which stands for real-life objects, is the fundamental building block of object-oriented programming. Many objects are created by an average Java program, and as you are aware, these objects interact by calling methods. A trinity of states, behaviors, and identities make up an object.
OOPS Concepts in C++
The method or pattern known as object-oriented programming, or OOPs, involves structured programs around objects instead of functions and logic. It helps to make the code flexible and modular by dividing the data into two memory regions, namely, data and functions.
The main emphasis of object-oriented programming is on objects that are needed to be manipulated. Data can be represented in OOPs as objects with properties and functions.
Here are some of the basic concepts that act as the building blocks of OOPs:
- Classes & Objects
Namespaces in C++
Namespaces enable us to give namespace scope to named objects, which otherwise would have global scope. This enables the organization of program elements into different logical scopes denoted by names. The namespace is a C++ element that is missing from C. A namespace is a declarative area that defines the scope of the identifiers (names of types, functions, variables, and so on) contained within it. The same name may appear in multiple namespace blocks. Within those blocks, every declaration is made in the defined scope.
Preprocessors in C++
Preprocessors are programs that process our source code before compilation, as their name implies. When writing a program in C or C++, there are several stages between writing the program and executing it.
Templates in C++
In C++, a template is an uncomplicated but incredibly effective tool. To avoid having to write the same code for various data types, the easy idea is to provide the data type as a parameter. For instance, a software firm might require sort() for various data types. We can write just one sort() function and send the data type as a parameter instead of writing and maintaining multiple codes. The two new keywords “template” and “typename” are added to C++ to enable templates. The keyword “class” can always be used in instead of the second keyword.
STL in C++
The Standard Template Library (STL) is a collection of C++ template classes that provide standard programming data structures as well as functions such as lists, stacks, arrays, and so on. It is a comprehensive library of iterators, algorithms, and container classes. Since it is a generalized library, all of its components are configurable. Working with STL requires a basic understanding of template classes.
Exception Handling in C++
Exception Handling is one of C++’s advantages over C. Exceptions are irregularities that occur at runtime or other unforeseen situations faced during the execution of a program. Synchronous and asynchronous exceptions are the two categories of exceptions. For this purpose, C++ provides the try, catch, and throw functions.
Files and Streams in C++
Three classes—fstream, ifstream, and ofstream—that are present in the fstream header file are mostly used in C++ to deal with files. Ifstream class is used to read from files, ofstream class is used while writing to files, and fstream class is used when reading and writing from or to files simultaneously.
Dynamic Memory in C++
In C/C++, the term “dynamic memory allocation” refers to the manual allocation of memory by the programmer. Non-static and local variables acquire memory allocations on Stack, whereas dynamically allocated memory is allocated on Heap.
Signal Handling in C++
The interrupts known as signals are the ones that compel an OS to pause its current task in order to attend to the one for which the interrupt has been sent. These interruptions have the ability to halt operation in any OS program. Similarly, C++ provides a variety of signals that can be captured and processed in a program.
Multithreading in C++
It was in C+11 that multithreading support was made available. Prior to C++11, we had to utilize the p threads library in C or POSIX threads. While this library was functional, the absence of a feature set given by a standard language created major portability problems. All of that was eliminated in C++ 11 and replaced with std::thread. In the thread header file, the thread classes and associated functions are defined.
In conclusion, C++ is a versatile and powerful programming language that is widely used in many different industries. Whether you are a beginner programmer or an experienced developer, learning C++ can be a rewarding and challenging experience. With its ability to handle complex tasks and its wide range of applications, C++ is definitely a language worth learning.
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